What type of messaging? If we’re trying to generate clicks, then our message would be something simple like, “See the highest-quality heavy machinery you’ve seen in your life” or something like that. The appeal would likely be to the quality of our machines (because our audience probably cares more about that then price) and our CTA is to see our machines by clicking.
The increased need for businesses to engage their clients in social media platforms is a trend that cannot be ignored. The business environment has tremendously changed, and now more and more people are finding themselves searching for, or sharing information on social media platforms.  If the businesses are to grow their brands and maintain relevance in the market, there is a need for them to keep an active social media platform. The reason for this is because many people are now on social media platforms like Facebook, Tweeter, Instagram and many others. Getting to this audience and being able to position the company’s brand well, businesses need a tool that will help them perform these tasks. Social media marketing is one of the new trends in the market, and companies need to embrace it and manage it well for positive results. Social media management software is a good way of handling social media platforms for business with much ease and accuracy.
Ideas often seem to strike at random. So you need a place to collect and develop them as inspiration comes. Trello has worked wonders for me because I can not only save ideas to a Trello board, but attach links, files, and notes to each idea as it comes to life. It gives you the flexibility to be as meticulous or as barebones as you want with your planning.
The most complete solutions in this tier are Synthesio and Sysomos, our Editors' Choices for enterprises. They both give the most extensive deep-dive analytics using the most engaging data visualizations and reporting. Each listening metric Synthesio measures, be it mentions, engagement, sentiment, or influencer reach, has drill-down capabilities to generate a custom dashboard with post lists and graphs from any point in the UI. Crimson Hexagon offers a similarly robust experience, with the capacity for live social stream monitoring and the best interactive visualizations for keyword and hashtag data. Sysomos offers deep social listening power plus an added publishing and social marketing campaign management product called Sysomos Expeon. It's a significant added expense on top of the main Sysomos platform, but the ad campaign-specific ROI data and reporting it provides is unmatched.
Friends+Me is another prime player in the social media management tools family. While Friends+Me puts the highest emphasis on Google Plus features, many other social platforms are supported. Friends+Me appears to get rave reviews from users, and has a beautifully designed website with plans available based on the size of your business. And yes, there is a free plan!
Facebook insights provides a similar functionality to Twitter analytics, this gives you stats on your pages post reach, engagement and likes. This helps you measure your progress and find out what is working well. You can also add your competitor’s pages to your ‘Pages to Watch’ list, so you can discover their engagement stats as well. This means if you see a competitor performing particularly well it might be worth seeing how they are using Facebook. Equally if a big player in your industry is doing rather badly (it happens more than you might think), then it might be worth seeing what there doing wrong so as not to fall foul of it as well.

Social Vantage is a social media management company. We provide affordable social media management services for all businesses. If you are looking for an automated solution for your business’ social media, Social Vantage is the perfect solution for you. Our social media marketing firm will create and manage all of your business’ social media posting, channel growth and customer interaction.
One of the main purposes of employing social media in marketing is as a communications tool that makes the companies accessible to those interested in their product and makes them visible to those who have no knowledge of their products.[33] These companies use social media to create buzz, and learn from and target customers. It's the only form of marketing that can finger consumers at each and every stage of the consumer decision journey.[34] Marketing through social media has other benefits as well. Of the top 10 factors that correlate with a strong Google organic search, seven are social media dependent. This means that if brands are less or non-active on social media, they tend to show up less on Google searches.[35] While platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ have a larger number of monthly users, the visual media sharing based mobile platforms, however, garner a higher interaction rate in comparison and have registered the fastest growth and have changed the ways in which consumers engage with brand content. Instagram has an interaction rate of 1.46% with an average of 130 million users monthly as opposed to Twitter which has a .03% interaction rate with an average of 210 million monthly users.[35] Unlike traditional media that are often cost-prohibitive to many companies, a social media strategy does not require astronomical budgeting.[36]
These posts can be one or more of the following: images, photo sets, animated GIFs, video, audio, and text posts. For the users to differentiate the promoted posts to the regular users' posts, the promoted posts have a dollar symbol on the corner. On May 6, 2014, Tumblr announced customization and theming on mobile apps for brands to advertise.[78]

Displaying your business’ personality through social media is one of the best ways to connect with your target audience. Your social media channels are just expanded opportunities for your brand’s voice, content, and interactions. A new customer may stumble upon your Instagram feed if they’re an avid Instagram user or a customer might be more likely to become a repeat purchaser if your online brand presence becomes more consistent and recognizable.
SOCi is the industry’s leading social media and reputation management solution. SOCi solves the difficult social media workflow challenges faced by the world’s top multi-location businesses. Our powerful social media solution was architected to address the very specific workflow and scalability issues faced by multi-location brands, digital marketing agencies, and multi-family property management companies that need to manage hundreds or thousands of social media pages. SOCi’s scalable and comprehensive platform technology provides every tool necessary for multi-location and multi-tenant businesses to manage their local social media efforts including: Intuitive Dashboard - Upon signing into SOCi, users are greeted with a high-level, yet comprehensive and easy to read dashboard highlighting analytics, content performance across all locations using SOCi, conversations and comments that need attention, recent reviews, and more! Content Discovery: With SOCi’s proprietary scoring tool, multi-location businesses can not only see what types of content are getting the most engagement, but SOCi can also tell you when to post it for optimal results across all locations in your portfolio. Asset Management/Content Libraries: After SOCi scores content found on the social web it allows you to choose from a library of highly curated, engaging content. This library cuts out the work of searching for relevant on brand content which saves you time while adding value to your brand. Peak-Time Scheduling: SOCi’s platform analyzes when your audiences most engage with your content, allowing you to post at peak times. Reporting and Analytics: SOCi puts the metrics and data that matter to your business in one easy-to-view dashboard to take the guessing out of what’s working and not working for your strategies. Reputation Management: Go beyond social media sites to pull and respond to reviews from Yelp, Citysearch, Google, and many more networks. SOCi serves as the infrastructure on which tens of thousands of social media business pages are being managed. SOCi is fully integrated with the top social media and reputation management networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, Google+, Yelp and more.
The Internet and social networking leaks are one of the issues facing traditional advertising. Video and print ads are often leaked to the world via the Internet earlier than they are scheduled to premiere. Social networking sites allow those leaks to go viral, and be seen by many users more quickly. The time difference is also a problem facing traditional advertisers. When social events occur and are broadcast on television, there is often a time delay between airings on the east coast and west coast of the United States. Social networking sites have become a hub of comment and interaction concerning the event. This allows individuals watching the event on the west coast (time-delayed) to know the outcome before it airs. The 2011 Grammy Awards highlighted this problem. Viewers on the west coast learned who won different awards based on comments made on social networking sites by individuals watching live on the east coast.[97] Since viewers knew who won already, many tuned out and ratings were lower. All the advertisement and promotion put into the event was lost because viewers didn't have a reason to watch.[according to whom?]

While traditional media, like newspapers and television advertising, are largely overshadowed by the rise of social media marketing, there is still a place for traditional marketing. For example, with newspapers, readership over the years has shown a decline. However, readership with newspapers is still fiercely loyal to print-only media. 51% of newspaper readers only read the newspaper in its print form,[96] making well-placed ads valuable.
The latest edition to our favorite social media management tools list is more than just a tool, it’s our very own new social network for content creators! DashBurst is a new multimedia web experience, social network, dashboard and blogging platform. You can explore and share a variety of different content including text, photos, video, audio, articles, infographics, docs, the web and any other media with just one simple Burst! You can also schedule and queue unlimited Bursts for later and watch them automatically get published to your DashBurst and other social media channels simultaneously, saving you time so that you can continue creating or just relax. On top of all that, you can create Boards to curate and showcase interesting content like your own works, must-read articles or anything you else you love too!
Everything you publish with Edgar is stored in an organized library and arranged into categories, like “Quotes,” “Blog Posts,” or “Cat Puns.” To save even more time, you can add content in bulk or connect him to an RSS feed. Create a schedule that tells Edgar when to publish from each category. That way, he always knows what types of status updates to post at which times, sharing the right variety of content automatically. When Edgar makes his way through all the new content in a category, he’ll simply start recycling older updates. He’ll never run out of things to say, and your posts will be seen by a new audience, bringing more traffic your way! Your library is organized into categories, and your schedule is built around the types of things you want to post. Once you define your categories and schedule, Edgar makes sure your queue is never empty – ever. When he’s published everything from a category, Edgar re-shares older updates that people might have missed the first time around – and every time he does, you can get brand new traffic.
This is where social media management software (SMMS) comes in. To better discuss this technology, it is prudent to ask, what does social media management software do for you? These new type of solutions aid organizations with the way they participate in important social media conversations. These conversations include blogs and social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, along with other forms of online communities. These tools are also imbued with new listening technologies, through which businesses can learn how people view their organizations. These functionalities accurately describes the true definition of social management software.

Blogging website Tumblr first launched ad products on May 29, 2012.[75] Rather than relying on simple banner ads, Tumblr requires advertisers to create a Tumblr blog so the content of those blogs can be featured on the site.[76] In one year, four native ad formats were created on web and mobile, and had more than 100 brands advertising on Tumblr with 500 cumulative sponsored posts.
Yelp consists of a comprehensive online index of business profiles. Businesses are searchable by location, similar to Yellow Pages. The website is operational in seven different countries, including the United States and Canada. Business account holders are allowed to create, share, and edit business profiles. They may post information such as the business location, contact information, pictures, and service information. The website further allows individuals to write, post reviews about businesses, and rate them on a five-point scale. Messaging and talk features are further made available for general members of the website, serving to guide thoughts and opinions.[56]
Find out how many people are pinning from your website, seeing your pins, and clicking your content. Pick a time-frame to see how your numbers trend over time. Get better at creating Pins and boards with metrics from your Pinterest profile. Learn how people use the Pin It button on your site to add Pins. See how people interact with your Pins from whatever device they use. Get a glance at your all-time highest-performing Pins.
1: Build a community and inspire action. Your followers should be people that you interact with and maintain a witty, relatable, and fun relationship with on social media. Stop selling your soul to gain followers, instead look to grow engagement. Brainstorm creative ways to keep your followers intrigued by creating truly powerful social media campaigns that will spur your audience to participate.
Social networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, MySpace etc. have all influenced the buzz of word of mouth marketing. In 1999, Misner said that word-of mouth marketing is, "the world's most effective, yet least understood marketing strategy" (Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels, 2009, p. 3).[84] Through the influence of opinion leaders, the increased online "buzz" of "word-of-mouth" marketing that a product, service or companies are experiencing is due to the rise in use of social media and smartphones. Businesses and marketers have noticed that, "a persons behaviour is influenced by many small groups" (Kotler, Burton, Deans, Brown, & Armstrong, 2013, p. 189). These small groups rotate around social networking accounts that are run by influential people (opinion leaders or "thought leaders") who have followers of groups. The types of groups (followers) are called:[85] reference groups (people who know each other either face-to-face or have an indirect influence on a persons attitude or behaviour); membership groups (a person has a direct influence on a person's attitude or behaviour); and aspirational groups (groups which an individual wishes to belong to).

Hootsuite and Zoho Social are close behind in offering a do-it-all social publishing and analytics hub for SMBs, and Buffer for Business is closing the gap with a packed feature release cadence to bolster its listening and influencer management chops. These are all tools that any social media manager or business user can operate with ease. They don't take a social data whiz and won't break your SMB's bank, but global brands with far more expansive listening requirements will want to consider enterprise offerings.
As a millennial (but not one of the whiny ones that baby boomers complain about), I grew up in the age of online friendships and followers, which has exploded into a world of digital living. If I want to find a restaurant, I hop on Yelp. Recipes or clothes? Pinterest. Trying to be an adult? LinkedIn. The best thing about these options is that they have already been vetted by other people! I’m going to trust a Facebook friend who recommends a product 1000x more than a description on the product website.

Social Media Marketing brings new rules and opportunities to increase the awareness, profitability, and overall lifeline of your brand. A further understanding of your consumers, how they communicate, the experiences they’re looking to have, and where they’re located digitally is crucial.  Your social media strategy will affect the chances of winning new customers, retaining current customers, future business expansion opportunities, talented employees, and better products. But don’t take the short way out. If at first you don’t succeed, don’t give up. Stray away from being comfortable and what’s safe. Social media is a marathon, not a sprint.
Yelp consists of a comprehensive online index of business profiles. Businesses are searchable by location, similar to Yellow Pages. The website is operational in seven different countries, including the United States and Canada. Business account holders are allowed to create, share, and edit business profiles. They may post information such as the business location, contact information, pictures, and service information. The website further allows individuals to write, post reviews about businesses, and rate them on a five-point scale. Messaging and talk features are further made available for general members of the website, serving to guide thoughts and opinions.[56]
Buffer is also one of the best apps for managing your social media presence and scheduling your posts. The app also comes with analytics tools which enable you to track your audience’s activity and figure out when it is the best time for you to post in the future. We especially love its Chrome extension, which integrates itself seamlessly and never gets in the way, yet it is always there when you need. It is a simpler and more effective way of managing your social media, and you are never more than a few clicks away from setting up anything you want.
James is an Ecommerce consultant and owner of Digital Juggler, an E-commerce and Digital Marketing consultancy helping retailers develop, execute and evolve E-commerce strategies and optimise their digital channel. With a background as a Head of E-commerce and also agency side as Head of Client Development, he has experienced life on both sides of the fence. He has helped companies like A&N Media, Sweaty Betty and Smythson to manage RFP/ITT proposals. and been lead consultant on high profile projects for Econsultancy, Salmon and Greenwich Consulting. He is a guest blogger for Econsultancy, for whom he also writes best practice guides, regularly contributes to industry events and co-hosts #ecomchat, a weekly Twitter chat for e-commerce knowledge sharing. For e-commerce advice and support, connect with James on LinkedIn and Twitter.
Platform integration: The social media management software will help the business to manage all of its essential social media platforms, from one central point. The software allows for the integration of various platforms like Facebook, Twitter YouTube, Instagram and many others from a single dashboard. It means then that a business will be up to date with all the latest news and trends in the social media, making it easy for them to make informed decisions.
As a millennial (but not one of the whiny ones that baby boomers complain about), I grew up in the age of online friendships and followers, which has exploded into a world of digital living. If I want to find a restaurant, I hop on Yelp. Recipes or clothes? Pinterest. Trying to be an adult? LinkedIn. The best thing about these options is that they have already been vetted by other people! I’m going to trust a Facebook friend who recommends a product 1000x more than a description on the product website.

Like objectives, campaigns have a result or goal that you are shooting for. For example, say one of your business objectives for the year is to generate 100 new customers. You could then plan out four specific campaigns over the year with each campaign goal to generate 25 new customers. That way, each campaign would serve its purpose of building toward your yearly goal.
Small businesses also use social networking sites as a promotional technique. Businesses can follow individuals social networking site uses in the local area and advertise specials and deals. These can be exclusive and in the form of "get a free drink with a copy of this tweet". This type of message encourages other locals to follow the business on the sites in order to obtain the promotional deal. In the process, the business is getting seen and promoting itself (brand visibility).
When I went rock climbing for the first time, I had no idea what I was doing. My friends and I were complete newbies about ropes and rappelling and every other bit of jargon and technique that goes with climbing. We saw others doing it spectacularly well. We were thrilled at the thought of reaching the top of the climbing wall; we had no idea how to get there.
Likealyzer takes the guess work out of your Facebook strategy. The recommendations point you in the right direction. Compare your Facebook page to competitors, partners, or brands you admire. Likealyzer will recommend similar pages to watch. Likealyzer converts raw Facebook analytics into a simple yet sophisticated report. Recommendations, not just metrics. Likealyzer is a Facebook tool designed for social media managers, agencies, and entrepreneurs.
Sociota is a powerful platform for monitoring of social media, management of social media, analysis of social media and engagement of social media platform. Sociota is simply a toolkit designed for providing highly optimized and successful social media campaigns. The social media monitoring feature enables users know what their audience are saying about them on social media sites. The social media monitoring feature also works by monitoring consumer opinions on user’s products. With social media monitoring, users are provided with an excellent platform for proactively responding to their consumers, therefore avoiding crisis. The social media analysis feature enables users know…

Traditional advertising techniques include print and television advertising. The Internet has already overtaken television as the largest advertising market.[95] Web sites often include the banner or pop-up ads. Social networking sites don't always have ads. In exchange, products have entire pages and are able to interact with users. Television commercials often end with a spokesperson asking viewers to check out the product website for more information. While briefly popular, print ads included QR codes on them. These QR codes can be scanned by cell phones and computers, sending viewers to the product website. Advertising is beginning to move viewers from the traditional outlets to the electronic ones.[citation needed]
One of the main purposes of employing social media in marketing is as a communications tool that makes the companies accessible to those interested in their product and makes them visible to those who have no knowledge of their products.[33] These companies use social media to create buzz, and learn from and target customers. It's the only form of marketing that can finger consumers at each and every stage of the consumer decision journey.[34] Marketing through social media has other benefits as well. Of the top 10 factors that correlate with a strong Google organic search, seven are social media dependent. This means that if brands are less or non-active on social media, they tend to show up less on Google searches.[35] While platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ have a larger number of monthly users, the visual media sharing based mobile platforms, however, garner a higher interaction rate in comparison and have registered the fastest growth and have changed the ways in which consumers engage with brand content. Instagram has an interaction rate of 1.46% with an average of 130 million users monthly as opposed to Twitter which has a .03% interaction rate with an average of 210 million monthly users.[35] Unlike traditional media that are often cost-prohibitive to many companies, a social media strategy does not require astronomical budgeting.[36]
For example, say you want to increase online sales. Your social media strategy would be to promote more of your business’ products on your social platforms, whether that be in the app itself (Insta, Facebook, etc.) or through a link that redirects people back to your site. It’s at this point where you would also decide if your promotion efforts on social media will be paid, organic, or a combination of both.

Likeable Local is a unique social tool thatany company can find useful. Driven by a passion for small business success, Likeable Local helps generate leads and referrals through its platform, as well as share content to social platforms. It also offers tools to boost your reach and manage your online reputation through built-in keywords so you can engage in the right conversations.

It's worth noting here that even armed with all the sophisticated technology offered in this roundup, there is no substitute for organic and genuinely interesting content on your company's social media channels. You can have the most technically sound social media strategy, but it's still up to you to create something your audience will want to follow and engage with. The best of these tools automate a lot of the hard work that your customers will never see (after all, the best social media appears effortless). It's just important to temper your expectations on what these platforms actually do before investing in any of them. Ultimately, you'll have to consider your brand's personality and tone for yourself.


What better way to gauge customer demand than to ask them yourselves?  Don’t be afraid to engage your followers and get their opinions.  Doing so can help identify both areas of strength and weakness.  As we discussed earlier, prompt response to comments is key to developing a relationship with your followers.  Even big box stores work to maintain open and responsive communication with their followers:

23snaps Amikumu aNobii AsianAve Ask.fm Badoo Bebo Cloob Cyworld Diaspora Draugiem.lv Ello Facebook Foursquare Gab Google+ Hello Hi5 Highlight Houseparty Idka Instagram IGTV IRC-Galleria Keek LiveJournal Lifeknot LockerDome Marco Polo Mastodon MeetMe Meetup Miaopai micro.blog MixBit Mixi Myspace My World Nasza-klasa.pl Nextdoor OK.ru Path Peach Periscope Pinterest Pixnet Plurk Qzone Readgeek Renren Sina Weibo Slidely Snapchat SNOW Spaces Spring.me Streetlife StudiVZ Swarm Tagged Taringa! Tea Party Community TikTok Tinder Tout Tuenti TV Time Tumblr Twitter Untappd Vero VK Whisper Xanga Yo

NapoleonCat.com is an analytics, engagement, and publishing platform for social media marketing. Users can publish on Facebook, Google+, and Twitter at once; plan their content with calendar and drafts; and include their clients and coworkers in the content design and decision making process with customized post flows. They also can curate their current and future clients while quickly responding to their questions and comments either via a private message on Facebook or through a comment on Instagram. Users can access in-depth analytics on any page or profile on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and Google+ to track the effectiveness of your or your competitors’ marketing efforts. NapoleonCat.com also makes social media marketing automation and reporting possible and enables users to process email and SMS complaints. They can also invite their co-workers, clients, and support team to work with them. NapoleonCat.com was founded by Grzegorz Berezowski in December 2011 and is based in Warsaw, Poland.
Where does your target audience spend time online? What kind of content and conversations do the audience members get most vocal about? What kind of information do they want from you? What do they dislike? Remember, you're not just pub¬lishing marketing messages on the social Web. You need to find out what your audience wants and needs, so you can provide the kind of content they find useful and interesting. However, you also need to be personable, so they actually want to interact with you.
IFTTT, short for If This, Then That, is a social media recipe website! In a series of simple steps, this website will help you set up simple commands which link up different applications to automatically perform actions if triggered. For example, IF the weather app tells you there is a high UV index, THEN a reminder to put on sunscreen is triggered. IF you are tagged in a photo on Facebook, THEN save the photos to dropbox.
Hootsuite gives customers a wide scope of controlling and managing their social media activity, by enabling them to manage all their social networks and schedule messages for future publishing. Hootsuite's best-in-class social media monitoring tools allow users to see comments about their on-display brands. Hootsuite's social media analytics give an in-depth view of how well the user’s social media efforts are being received, so they can choose the better of what is working or change directions. Adding multiple Team Members feature makes sharing the workload easier because it manages social media well. Vitals like reputations, assets, and financials etc being…
Social Mention is a social media tool and a real time search platform for social reputation management and social listening management solution. Social Mention has features such as point-in-time social media search and analysis service, daily social media alerts, and a third-party API. Social Mention monitors social media properties directly including but not limited to Twitter, Facebook, FriendFeed, YouTube, Digg and Google. Social Mention has a scorecard which helps users to keep track of the online passion for their brand. (Passion is a measure of the likelihood that individuals talking about the user’s brand and will do so repeatedly.) Social…

On Google+ you can upload and share photos, videos, links, and view all your +1s. Also take advantage of Google+ circles, which allow you to segment your followers into smaller groups, enabling you to share information with some followers while barring others. For example, you might try creating a “super-fan” circle, and share special discounts and exclusive offers only with that group.
In-Depth Analytics: Many SMMS are capable of providing users with metrics on social media accounts, data from which can be integrated into a company’s social media and brand strategies. Such metrics can also be used to link social media strategies to a business’ website. They can keep tabs on how marketing campaigns are doing, which can provide valuable insights into a company’s social media presence.
SocialPilot is a social media automation tool for scheduling and marketing your social media to increase your social media efficiency. 1) You can connect over 9 social media networks like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Google+, LinkedIn, Pinterest, Tumblr, Xing and VK with SocialPilot. 2) Share as many as 500 posts and connect over 200 profiles with just one SocialPilot account. 3) Post with your own brand name instead of SocialPilot's with the Custom FB Branding Feature. 4) Add up to 20 team members in your SocialPilot account to delegate sharing and scheduling with Team Collaboration feature. 5) Schedule 100s' of posts at a time uploading a CSV with Bulk Scheduling feature. 6) Want to have a look on when and what have you scheduled, have a look at our Social Media Calendar. 7) Never stay out of content, we have a lot many content suggestions. Add Curated Content and RSS Feeds for a never ending scheduling of your posts. 8) Difficulty waiting for your client's response about their account credentials. With Client Connect feature, wait no more for their account credentials or being an admin. 9) Bored of long, unwanted ugly looking URLs'. Create your own customized branded domains for more visibility and recognition with the URL Shorteners SocialPilot provides. With all these features under just one platform just go, start SocialPiloting right away!
We all know that social media is critical to every business’s marketing initiatives (especially those in creative industries like craft marketing). Not having active social channels for your business is equivalent to showing up to work without pants; it’s embarrassing and not socially accepted. No one wants to be the idiot who shows up to work in their underwear, but what’s the point of maintaining social channels if they’re not adding value to your business? Well, there is none. You should be using social to do one or several of the following: establishing and growing brand recognition, gaining qualified leads, or improving customer relationships (ideally all three).
Social media is more than just a fun way to engage and communicate with friends.  It can be an extremely powerful business marketing tool if strategically implemented.  A common mistake businesses make is failing to develop a formal social media plan.  Having a plan for social media is just as important as it is any digital marketing plan.  A savvy business owner does not buy traditional advertising without developing a plan, and the same applies with social media.

Some of the measurables related to generating these 25 new customers would be conversion rate, traffic generated via the campaign, and click-through-rate. These metrics would be important to this specific campaign because they all relate to our goal (generating 25 new customers) and help us to forecast our performance, as well as measure against industry standards and competitors.
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